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语法精讲被动语态(语法精讲被动语态北京四中孙玲)

   日期:2023-11-08     来源:本站    作者:caijiyuan    caijiyuan   评论:0    移动:http://gvzdjj.riyuangf.com/mobile/news/291252.html

语法精讲被动语态(语法精讲被动语态北京四中孙玲)

不用被动语态的情况

(1) 不及物动词动词短语无被动语态

英语中的不及物动词,如 appear, die, disappear, end, fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand,以及一些动词短语,如 break out(爆发), come true(实现), fall asleep(入睡), keep silence(保持沉默), lose heart(失去信心), take place(发生)等不能用被动语态。

下面我们举例说明:

比如“价格上涨了”这句话,我们要么用不及物动词rise的主动语态,要么用及物动词raise的被动语态。即:

The price has risen.(rise 不及物动词,主动语态)

The price has been raised. (raise 及物动词,被动语态)

再比如"这个事故是上周发生的”,“happen”(发生} 是不及物动词,所以没有被动语态。

这句话的正确翻译应该是:

The accident happened last week.

不能翻译成:The accident was happened last week.

由此看来,要想正确地使用被动语态,就须注意哪些动词是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特别是一词多义的动词往往有两种用法。解决这一问题唯有在学习过程中多留意、多积累。

(2) 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语

有些及物动词或动词短语也不能用于被动语态,这些及物动词或短语有:fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch,agree with,arrive in /at, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to等。

例如:This key just fits the lock.

这把钥匙正好与锁匹配。(fit 虽是及物动词,但习惯上它没有被动语态。)

Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

你的故事与曾经听过的故事一致。( agrees with 短语没有被动语态)

(3) 系动词无被动语态: appear, be,become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn等。

例如:It sounds good.

听上去很好。

You look ill.

你看上去生病了。

(4) 带同源宾语的及物动词,反身代词,相互代词,不能用于被动语态: die, death, dream, live, life。

例如:She dreamed a bad dream last night.

她昨晚做了的噩梦。

不能说成 A bad dream was dreamed by her last night.

The girl took care of herself when her mother was away.

妈妈不在时,那女孩儿自己照顾自己。

这句话不能说成:

Herself was taken care of by the girl when her mother was away.

We often help each other at school.

我们在学校常常互相帮助。

不能说成: Each other are often helped by us at school.

(5)并非所有的及物动词都有相应的被动句,当“主+谓+宾”结构的谓语动词是表示状态或特征的及物动词,如:contain, cost, fit, have, lack, resemble, suit等,主动句便没有相应的被动句:

例如:Linda resembles her mother.

琳达像她妈妈。(主动)

The auditorium holds 2000 people.

大礼堂能容纳两千人。(主动)

My shoes don' t fit me.

我的鞋不合脚。(主动)

John always lacks confidence.

约翰总是缺乏信心。(主动)

以上这些句子都不能改为被动语态。

但是,状态动词know有相应的被动态。

例如:The Experts have been known to make this mistake.

大家知道这些专家们犯了这个错误。

有时一些不能用于被动语态的状态动词,在同一意义上,如果不用“by + 词组”,可以有被动句。

例如:All my things are held in this box.

这只箱子里装着我所有的东西。

(6)某些被动句没有相应的主动句。

例如:I was born in Xi'an.

我生于西安。

He was said to be an honest man.

据说他是个老实人。

They will be married next month.

他们将于下月结婚。

She said that she was not obliged to work overtime.

她说她并非一定要加班。

(7)当“主谓宾”结构的宾语为反身代词或相互代词时,不能转换为被动句。(前面已提及)

例如:Did he hurt himself when he fell?

他跌倒时有没有摔伤了自己?

We could hardly see each other in the fog.

在雾中我们彼此几乎看不见。

They told each other about their families.

他们互相向对方讲述了各自的家庭情况。

(下期预告:主语从句。

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